Creating a Fantasy World – Language(Part 2)

Part 2 of the series Create a Fantasy World


The language is an important part of world-building. The inhabitants of your world use language to communicate, exchange thoughts and ideas, archive and pass information from one another.

You must think about language in the beginning of your world-building, because the decisions you make about it, will influence a lot of your future work. Of course, this post is not a tutorial on how to create a language itself, given that the subject is extremely wide, but more as to guide you through the various options you have as you are creating your world.


The very first decision to make when thinking about language is this: will you create a separate language for your world or not?

I know its tempting to say ‘Yes, I want a new language,’ but once you read forward and understand the challenges it presents, you might re-consider. If you are creating your world for a book, how important is the fact that the characters speak a new language, and even more importantly, how necessary is that you actually create that new language?

To understand why the answer is not easy, think about a book we all (should) know: Alice in Wonderland. Let me ask you this: what is the spoken language in Wonderland? You’ll probably say: English, but is it? Would the story be different if it wasn’t English? What if it was Wonderlaneze? The book would still be written in English, so the fact that there is a different language spoken would, in fact, be transparent.

Here’s another example: how many languages are spoken in the Lord of the Rings universe, by J.R.R. Tolkien? The answer is: about twenty. And Tolkien, a linguist himself, not only created all those languages, he developed them. He created phonology, grammar, vocabulary, common rules, scripts, derivations and exceptions and so on. Now, unless you are a LOTR fanatic, and you are just a person who read the books and/or saw the movie: did you know that? Probably not. All you need to know is that there are some languages, but other than that you don’t care, because that would distract from the story.

These are all things that come to mind when you think about introducing foreign, made-up languages in your worlds. Here are the four basic scenarios I can envision:

  • No mention of anything about language whatsoever
  • Mention the existence of a different language, but provide no details
  • Mention the different language, provide several words/phrases as needed
  • Create a full language, use it as needed

There are pros and cons to each of these, so let’s look at them in detail.

No New Language

This is obviously the most convenient choice because you do not need to tie yourself with the additional burden of creating a new language. You will simply write the book in your language and let the characters speak in your language (or whatever language your book was translated into), and nobody has to worry about anything.

Most books fall into this first category, by and large. As a reader, you kind of know there must be a different language in the story, especially if the story takes place in a made-up world. Even if your story is a futuristic sci/fi tale, based on our real Universe, the chance that an exact replica of a human language might show up somewhere else in the galaxy is close to zero. Just look at our own world: countries just miles away speak completely different languages.

So, as a reader, you know that must be the case, but you are not told about it and you probably don’t care.

New Language, Little Details

Probably fewer books fall into the second category. Here the author makes it a point to specify that there is a different language, but that language is not developed nor explained. It might be used as a means for plot, as in XYZ speaks one language and therefore ABC, the eavesdropper, doesn’t understand it. It’s a useful tool, if used correctly.

This one works well when you are dealing with different races in a world and you want to associate a language to each race. What works really well here is this hack: create also an universal language to go around the communications barriers. In a fantasy world, maybe this language is the “old language” or the “language of the Gods.” In a sci/fi world, maybe there is a device that is able to translate between languages on the spot.

In this way, you create the complexity of a realistic world by mentioning the languages, but you also offer a solution as to how people go around communicating.

It gets even simpler if your plot takes place in a small geographic space, where you are limited to one language.

So, in this category, you are not only letting the reader assume there are multiple languages, you spell it out, but that’s about it.

New Language, Some Usage

In the third category you have those authors that enjoy (and have the time) to dig deeper into language creation. This category is quite close to the previous one, but in here, you might actually have some characters say something in their language, or perhaps present something written, like a lost scroll or some carvings in a cave.

You can use this to your advantage as well, by waving it into the plot. Maybe there is a race whose language is unknown to your POV character. Instead of saying:

He stared at them, unable to understand what they were saying.

You can say:

“Hubba-bubba lumpa-drumpa,” the stranger said and Jin stared at him with wide eyes.

So, now you are introducing some unique words to your world and you let the reader experience first-hand not being able to understand them.

But be careful: fiction is about plot and about characters. It’s not about your ability to make up words. You can go around with a few things like the one above, but use them sparingly. Otherwise you will wind up with a book that is hard to read and an annoyed reader. As much as you want, no reader will learn your new language right away, no matter how cool it is. So, use it for effect, don’t let it take over. Once your book becomes a best sellers there will be some people who might develop the complete language for you, for free, for fun…

Complete New Language

Lastly, you have the master language creators. They spend the time to create a complete new language for their world. But, to no one’s surprise, the books in the last category feel a lot like the books in the third category, and by now it’s pretty clear why.

Tolkien worked on his languages for 63 years. He created about 20 different languages. That is a life-time commitment. I don’t say you shouldn’t do it, but be prepared for a very daunting task.

The decision you make about the languages in your fantasy world is going to influence the difficulty of writing, but, more importantly, the difficulty of reading. For beginning writers, I suggest choosing category 1 or 2. Once you get better at creating worlds, you should move to category 3. I would never recommend anyone to spend the time to create a full language, unless this really becomes your hobby.

Since this article is not designed to teach you how to create a new language, but rather to help you decide on your approach to using a new language in your fiction, I will provide you with some resources you can check, should you decide you want a new language:

Writing Systems

People are visual. We understand differences when we see things that look different. From this perspective, using a different writing system to signify a different language is a good way to make a fast and deep impact. Of course, we are talking about the visual representation of the alphabet. The way it usually works is a language has a certain phonology (the way it sounds) and then it has a certain visual representation (alphabet) and a set of rules that explain how to read the alphabet so that it sounds like the language. Unless you have a frame of reference, it is usually hard to understand how to read an alphabet. For example, for some this: /ˈθɜroʊ, ˈθʌroʊ/ makes no sense. It is in fact the IPA (International Phonetic Alphabet) representation of the word ‘thorough.’ So, the IPA standard is the frame of reference. If you learn that and apply it to any language you can figure out how to “say” the sounds in that language.

Defining new alphabets is not easy, but I have to admit, it is fun as hell. To exemplify, here are just a few alphabets from various constructed languages that you may have heard of:

Script images and text copyright by

orange-arrowCirth“Cirth [ˈkirθ] was invented by J.R.R. Tolkien for use in his novels. It is modelled on the Anglo-Saxon Runic alphabet, and is used to write the language of the Dwarves (Khuzdul) in The Hobbit and The Lord of the Rings in inscriptions in wood and stone. It is also used as a alternative alphabet for English.


orange-arrowDothraki – “The Dothraki alphabet was invented by Carlos and Patrícia Carrion as a way to write the Dothraki language, a constructed language created by David J. Peterson for the television series, Game of Thrones, and based on the invented words and phrases used in George R. R. Martin’s series of books entitled A Song of Ice and Fire.


orange-arrowKlingon – “Klingon is the language spoken by Klingons, alien characters in the Star Trek films and TV series. In the 1984 film, Star Trek III: The Search for Spock, the director, Leonard Nimoy, and the writer-producer, Harve Bennett, wanted the Klingons to speak a real-sounding language rather than gibberish, so they commissioned the linguist Marc Okrand to create Klingon.


orange-arrowSarati – “Tolkien also created a number of different alphabets to write his languages – the Sarati alphabet only appears in a small number of inscriptions in the tales of Middle-earth.


Browse for more fictional alphabets at Omniglot.

Final Words About Language

I think the critical thing you should take from this article is this: don’t make an effort in creating a language just for the sake of having one, but if you do, make sure it is unique, interesting and doesn’t take the focus away from your story and from your characters. As I mentioned above, everyone expects your fantasy world to have a different language, just like they expect magic, and strange creatures, and things that are physically impossible in our world. But most of all, the readers expect a good story and amazing characters. Language, just like setting, will add to the general look-and-feel of the story, but it should never be the focus. That of course, unless your story is specifically about language. If your story is the story of an alien Jean François Champollion, uncovering the secrets of a future world’s language in hopes of saving the planet, then by all means, go crazy!

If you want to study more about fictional languages, Wikipedia has a pretty vast list of constructed languages, with background and description.

This concludes the second chapter of this series. Hopefully once you are finished with your work you will be in the same spot where I am with my world. To see what I’ve done, click on the link below:

Creating a Fantasy World Demo – Part 2

Creating a Fantasy World Demo – Part 1

Last, but not least, please comment below and share your ideas on language in fiction.

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Creating a Fantasy World – Geography (Part 1)

Part 1 of the series Create a Fantasy World


It’s good to be God, isn’t it? To be up there on some sort of high cloud, or a bicycle, or whatever else your godly environment permits, wiggling your fingers toward a dark corner of the Universe and have a new world spawn and take life under your eyes. It is good, and as a fiction writer, you get to be God every day. Sometimes on a smaller scale, sometimes on a larger scale. Sometimes your creations make you proud, other times they turn out of control and you must punish them.

But still, you get to be God, and that is what world-building gives you– the satisfaction of creation, the power to make life and watch it play in front of you, without leaving your desk.

Now, is your story the same as your world? The answer is no. Even in a milieu story, where setting is important, you must never forget the true components of a complete story. Simply put, a story is a bunch of interesting characters, involved in an interesting plot, raising a certain level emotional response in the reader, while everything is taking place in an interesting setting.

Let me ask you: if you drop ‘interesting’ in any of the parts of the sentence above, do you lose the story? Well, if you drop it out of characters, you will wind up with boring characters. Boring characters can’t elicit an emotional response, so your entire world will fall flat.

If you take interesting out of the plot, you will wind up with interesting characters doing something boring, and that’s no good either.

If you drop it from both, then why are you even writing?

On the other hand, if you drop interesting out of setting you don’t necessarily wind up with a flat story, unless you are writing fantasy or science fiction. Let me explain.

Let’s say you have a story set in New York City. Now, NYC is an interesting city, by all means, but is still just that: a city on Earth. Unless you are writing some sort of alternate history or post-apocalyptic situation, you pretty much know what to expect of a city. That’s what I mean by removing interesting. You don’t have to struggle to make it interesting. It’s already interesting as is, so your job is half done.

Same goes if you decide to write a new novel set in OZ. The premise of OZ is already there, you just ride the wave.

But when the time comes to invent a world from scratch, whether it’s fantasy or science fiction, it better be fresh, interesting, and functional, otherwise your story will not work well.

This series of posts deal with the world creation, giving you tangible, step-by-step solutions on how to go about it. Together with it, I will be building a world as we go along, using the same steps. At the end, I hope you and I both can have something cool to show off!

Chapter One: Geography and Natural Resources

And Then There Was Light…

Fantasy Map Big BangHow do you start a story? I’m sure you can think of several ways and various combinations of those ways. Usually different writers love one or another, or become more comfortable with one or another over time.
For example, you could start with one or a few characters, you can start with a plot line, or you can start with a setting. Either way, to get the complete story, you will still have to come up with all three and mesh them together in the best possible way.

Since one way to define ‘fantasy’ is something different than our reality, I like to start a fantasy story by looking at the world. There are many books on plot and character, and you can take those rules plus your own and apply them to any genre, from science fiction to romance and so on. The difference in a fantasy or science fiction story is that the specifics of the world are very important and often define the story.

So, I find it very useful to first define and understand the world, and later on let the characters play the plot in that world to shape the full story.

Since the Universe, any Universe, is infinite, any subset of the Universe is a Universe in itself. I like to break them down into two concepts: Macro-Universe and Micro-Universe. When I create my world, I always start with the Macro-Universe, and walk my way down to the Micro-Universe. Your story world will be somewhere between those two. Once I get that down, it’s a lot easier to work on the plot and the characters, since knowing where they are and what to expect from the environment will influence how they act, what they do, and what is possible or acceptable.

Think about some of the stories that you’ve read in the past and see if you can visualize the plot and the characters in a different location than the one in the book. Of course, you can, that’s why there are so many modern variations on the Wizard of OZ. Strong characters and powerful stories can happen anywhere. But a lot of times, just like in Oz, or Lord of The Rings, the story world is so strongly intertwined with the plot that it becomes unique and immediately recognizable, and that is what you want to shoot for.

This being said, I like to begin my worlds by thinking about the outer shell and working my way toward the inner shell.

In some instances you may not need to go as far. As we will see later, the geographical world is not something fixed in space and time. There is a history, there is a genesis, and there are interactions that made the world be what it is. You need to decide how important those are to your story. If they’re not, don’t spend lots of time on them. Maybe do it just for your own sake, to help you later on (remember the reader should only know 10% or so from the entire idea behind your world).

Just note that this becomes increasingly important if you are working on a series. Think it through from the start so you don’t find yourself in a corner three books into your series (and have to use tricks such as ‘and a wizard came from the sky and changed everything.’)

To begin, answer the following questions:

  • Is it important to know how the physical world came to be? Was it created by a deity, was it a result of some scientific evolution?
  • Is it important to know the place in space and time for this world, or do I only need to know my world, within its boundaries?

When you discuss the map for your world, which we’ll get to in just a moment, how do you picture that map? Is it on a planet, is it suspended in some sort of unknown structure, does it simply exist and no one knows or had ever wondered what lies beyond its boundaries?

Most of the time, especially if your world was created by a deity, it’s very helpful to have some answers to these questions. Especially if you will introduce religion and magic into your world later on, those concepts are usually significantly influenced by the way your world was created and where it exists. Just like humans are constantly preoccupied and in search of the origin and reason for life, your story world can go through the same turmoil, adding tension and drama to the world.

The Universe

Fantasy Map UniverseLet’s think about the Macro-Universe first, and for simplicity I’ll call this Universe (anything that is outside of the reach of your world). At the end of the day, your story will take place within physically limited bounds, such as a galaxy, planet, country, land, field, city, fortress, etc. Somewhere where characters can move, interact and where things can happen. That part is what I call the micro-Universe, but again, for simplicity, I will refer to it as ‘story world’.

In your case, the Universe could be very fuzzy, if it is unimportant to the story. For example, you may have some sort of land, delimited by the “Boundaries of Doom.” What lies beyond those boundaries? We don’t know, because we don’t care, in this example.

Your world will have characters in it, interacting, as we said. So, you need to draw a parallel between our real world and your imaginary world, and see how many of the things that we experience here on Earth can be applied to your world, and how many are worth changing.

Let me try to enumerate some of the things that come to mind:

  • Is your world underground, above ground, under water, or in the air?
  • Is there a day/night concept?
  • What is the source of light? Do you even need light? Is there a star (or more) similar to the Sun?

The easiest way to think about a Universe is a globe, or a sphere. It’s true that in reality an infinite Universe doesn’t have a center, because it is infinite, but for the purposes of creating an Universe for a story, think of it as a giant sphere. Your world is somewhere inside that sphere. Giving it that shape will make it easier for you to picture it.


Fantasy Map TerraformingOnce you established the idea of your Universe and gave your world a place inside it, now you have to start building the physical part of your world. I’m talking about your geography and natural resources.
You will probably revisit this many times and make adjustments required by your plot, but it’s a good idea to establish some initial rules.

Every time I have to create a new world, I struggle with this idea: how big should the world be? Let me teach you a little trick.

Think about Earth and do things relative to familiar earthly notions. Do you envision a world that is roughly as big as Paris, or as big as Europe, or as big as Africa, or maybe even as big as Earth, or perhaps twice as big as Earth? Either way, narrowing down the approximate size and finding a matching size on Earth will help you tremendously.

Once you have a mental approximate size for your world, think about a few aspects that will influence the way you define your world:

  • Can your characters transport over water? Do you want water?
  • Can your characters fly?

These two will influence the way you create your map. If there are ways for your characters to travel by water, with ships or other means, you could create oceans and seas between your lands. If your creatures can fly, you can create tall mountains or deep canyons; but if they can’t, be careful, you might make parts of your world inaccessible.

Another important aspect is how advanced is your society. If it’s a primitive world, they might not be able to build bridges and tunnels, or even know the wheel. We’ll deal with technological advances soon, but for now, think of an era in the human history and picture the things that were possible back then and align your world as such.

Before you start drawing your world, let’s briefly touch on a few aspects that will come into play later, but they are worth mentioning now. These are elements that will influence the way your map will look in the end:

  • Political System and Government
  • Races and their effect on the environment
  • Fauna and Flora

So, how do you start planning your map, especially if you are not too good at drawing, like me? This is what I do: I first decide the general size of my world, as explained above, and then I open Excel (or any other spreadsheet program, like Numbers or Google Sheets) and I create a matrix of narrow rows and columns. When I say narrow, I mean 1-2 millimeters on your screen. This will give you a square matrix.

To do so, open a New document, and select multiple rows and columns and resize them down to obtain a small grid. Depending on the size of your world, decide on a scale for each cell. For example, let’s say we are talking about a world that is 2000 miles wide and 2000 miles long, so about the size of the United States (The actual size of USA is 3.794 million miles). We’ll say that 1 cell is 50 square miles. That gives you a 40 x 40 matrix.

Make sure you select the entire matrix and add borders all around each cell to make it easier to read.
Now that you have this grid, start representing the various parts of your world by using squares with different colors. Don’t worry about overlapping or the fact that they are not the right shape; aim for the size. What you want to do here is scale various parts of your world. Since you know one cell is 50 miles, a 3 x 3 square will be 150 x 150 miles, for example, so a 22,500 square miles area, about the size of West Virginia.

If your world is very big, you can create multiple sheets like that and join them together.

To make this easier for you, I have created a template that gives you a 40 x 40 matrix, an 80 x 80 matrix (roughly size of Asia), and 100 x 100 matrix. Download it here, and use it freely. It is a XLSM file, so a Macro-Enabled Excel file for Excel 2010. The Macros are needed because I have a few tools to help you calculate areas.

Once you completed this part, you should probably print it. Now you have a simplistic, birds-eye view of your world, very square and unrealistic, but still a good start

Here’s what I do next: I put a blank paper over the Excel printout. If I have semi-opaque paper, I use that, otherwise I put the papers one on top of each other on a window facing out, so I can see the Excel drawing through the paper. Using a pen, I start to trace the map by using the squares as guidelines. All you have to do is make sure that in your drawing you draw the map line as much on the outside of the squares, as you reduce it on the inside. When you have a lot of squares clustered together, they might be a part of the same continent, in which case you just draw all around them.

To understand what I mean, when you finish reading this look at the demo page associated with this post to see how I did it. (Link at the bottom of the post)

Oh, and here’s a tip: Use a pencil and have an eraser close by. No map comes out the way you want it from the beginning.

Once you are done, find out the scale of your map. To do so, use a regular ruler and measure how many squares on the Excel sheet you have in one inch. Let’s say you have 10. This means that one inch on your map is equivalent to 500 miles (50 x 10). At this point, you have a very rough shape of your map. The sizes of land and water are now starting to be clear. Before you move to the next step look at the map and answer these:

  • Is there enough land for your story to take place? Remember, one inch is 500 miles (in this example), so measure your land and see how big the distances are.
  • Is there enough / too much water in oceans and seas? Are the lands so far away that it would take a ship way too long to travel?

This is paramount because if your distances are too large you will wind up with transportation problems later on (the last thing you want to do is have two cities so far away that they break your plot because your Prince Charming cannot gallop fast enough to save the princess…) Some of this will be solved later on when you deal with magic, since magic can be used to avoid all transportation problems.

So, what we’ve done so far is create a two dimensional world. Now it’s time to give it some height and you do that by adding mountains, hills and valleys.

It’s not easy to depict your heights on a hand-drawn map, so one trick I use is a numbering system from -10 to +10, where -10 is the lowest point, like a valley or the bottom of a canyon, and +10 is the highest point, such as a mountain summit. Put numbers on your map to define the height in different areas. This is totally optional, and I usually skip this step, but if your map is very large and complex, it might be a good way to keep track of heights.

Now that you know where your mountain ranges are, draw a closed area with the pencil and slightly gray it out. Do go crazy with the shades, it’s simpler to use the -10/+10 method to mark the difference in height.
Once the mountains are established put some rivers and lakes. Here are some rules:

  • Generally rivers spring from mountains
  • Make sure your rivers flow into an ocean, and try not to make all rivers flow “down your map.” It’s tempting but your map is seen from above, so make rivers go in all directions.
  • Use a thicker or thinner line to identify wider or narrower rivers, respectively. Often, thinner rivers will merge with wider rivers
  • A river usually breaks into a few smaller ones or a delta before spilling into the ocean
  • Lakes are often found along rivers, or in close proximity to rivers.

Now, just use your pencil and draw some rivers and lakes on your map.

Directions and Seasons

Fantasy Map SeasonsAt this point, you are looking at a very simplistic land. You have given your world a little bit of a shape, you have decided where the land and waters are and dropped a few mountains, lakes, and rivers. We won’t add any vegetation yet, we’ll discuss this in the Flora and Fauna chapter.

Before we move any further, let’s talk about something important: directions. Because we are working in a two-dimensional environment (the drawing on a paper), your map has an “up and a down,” and “a left and a right.” What are those? Well, on Earth we call them North, South, East and West and the absolute position on the planet is given by latitude and longitude. You need to provide a similar system for your world so the reader can understand what is what and where it is.

The easiest way is to call it ‘North, South, East and West,’ because it makes sense, and because their name doesn’t really affect your plot, in most cases. But if you want to invent new names for the directions, make sure you make it very clear and mark them on the map. If somebody is walking towards “Sunrise” or towards the “Boundaries of the Gods,” where is that on the map? Is it up, down, left or right? You need to define the system that allows people to know if they are holding the map upside down and to understand where is somebody heading.

Next thing to take into account are seasons and temperature. You may have to revisit this based on your plot, but put some ideas down now. On Earth, North-most and South-most areas are frozen and cold, whereas at the Equator it is always hot. How is your world?

Depending on that, you may have areas that are constantly frozen, or areas that are constantly hot. In your fantasy world, you may have parts of the world that are forever on fire, or parts where the temperature depends on something, maybe magic, or people’s faith.

Either way, brainstorm about that and write down what comes up. On your map you can draw little bubbles and write ‘cold,’ ‘hot’, ‘medium,’ to mark the relative temperature. I say relative because what we consider ‘hot’ on Earth might not be perceived as ‘hot’ in your world.

Another thing to take into account are seasons, or temperature cycles. On Earth we are used to have parts of the world with four seasons, other parts with two seasons and others with just one. What is the situation in your world? Depending on that, you will have to draw your map in some point in time: Is it winter time, when mountains have snow, or is it summer time when the fields are filled with trees and crops? This starts to tie-in with the beginning when you answered the questions about your world’s place in space and things like day/night concepts.

Mapping Your World

Fantasy Map Mapping WorldNow how do you go about creating an actual cool map from your draft? If you know how to draw you are probably skipping this part already. If you know somebody who can draw, you should probably call them. But what if you don’t?

There are a few software packages out there that can help you create your maps. And behind those software packages, there are groups of people who enjoy creating maps and might do yours for free or for a small fee.

If you want to have a cool map, probably the software is the way to go. None of these applications are things you can just start using overnight, however, they are not impossible to grasp.
Here are the ones that I know:

Are you surprised there aren’t a lot more? So was I.
Of course, you can always choose to use one of the major graphics programs, such as Adobe Photoshop and the like. But for people who can’t draw, using one of the programs above is the only way to go.

Personally, I have only used Campaign Cartographer and I have to say, the maps that come out of that software are pretty sweet. Take a look at the gallery below to get an idea:

Copyright notice: All images are copyright ProFantasy Software (

This concludes the first chapter of this series. Hopefully once you are finished with your work you will be in the same spot where I am with my world. To see what I’ve done, click on the link below:

Creating a Fantasy World Demo – Part 1

Last, but not least, please comment below and give me your ideas and opinions about this first section of creating a fantasy world.

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